Paris Agreement
An agreement within the framework of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change that establishes measures for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The agreement seeks to keep the average global temperature increase below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change.
The atmosphere is the layer of gas that surrounds a celestial body and is held in place by gravity. In the case of the Earth, the atmosphere is a homogeneous layer of gases that is concentrated around the planet and is vital for protecting the planet and life.
Photovoltaic self-generation
Photovoltaic self-generation is a means of power generation that transforms solar radiation into electrical energy by using photovoltaic panels. It is one of the fundamental pieces for the energy model of the future, since it allows citizens to generate, manage and consume their own energy, which comes from renewable sources with a minimum impact on the environment.
Biomass is organic matter used as a source of energy. This material may come from animals or plants, including organic waste. Biomass is a renewable and sustainable energy source used to produce electricity and heat.
Coking coal
Coking coal or metallurgical coal is a fuel obtained from the distillation of the footprint by heating it at very high temperatures in closed furnaces that isolate it from the air. It is light and porous. Most metallurgical coking coal is used in industrial blast furnaces.
Neutral coal (carbon neutrality)
This refers to achieving zero net carbon dioxide emissions by balancing the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere with an equivalent amount removed from the atmosphere. In other words, it is a balance between greenhouse gas emissions and their removal.
Thermal coal
It is a plant-type mineral extracted from open-pit mining areas by means of highly technical operations. In addition, it has a high calorific value and low sulfur, ash and moisture content, which makes it well known throughout the world for its excellent quality. It is mainly used in power generation and thermoelectric processes.
Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Technology (CCUS) is a set of technological processes with the purpose of reducing carbon emissions in the atmosphere, capturing the CO2 generated at large scales in fixed sources to store it safely and permanently underground.
Carbon dioxide is a linear molecule composed of a carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms, whose chemical formula is CO2. It is a chemical compound found mostly in the atmosphere, and is a part of the carbon cycle – vital for life on earth
Degasification is the process of removing a gas dissolved in a liquid, especially in water or aqueous solutions. Gases are removed for various reasons. Chemists remove gases from solvents when the compounds being worked with are sensitive to air or oxygen, or when the formation of bubbles at the liquid-solid interface may affect product quality. It is also known as outgassing, especially when people talk about outgassing that occurs in enclosed environments, such as offices and homes.
Diesel or gasoil is a liquid hydrocarbon with a density of about 850 kg (1874 lb)/m3 or 0.85 g/cm3 at 15 °C (59 °F), composed primarily of kerosenes and used mainly as a fuel for heating and diesel engines. Its lower calorific value is 35.86 MJ (10 kWh)/L or 43.1 MJ (12 kWh)/kg, depending on its composition.
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a linear molecule composed of a carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms, whose chemical formula is CO2. It is a chemical compound found mostly in the atmosphere, and is a part of the carbon cycle – vital for life on earth.
Emissions are gases and other particulates that are released into the atmosphere as a result of fuel combustion and other processes.
Scope 1 emissions
Greenhouse gas emissions directly from sources owned or controlled by the company.
Scope 2 emissions
Indirect emissions from the generation of power, steam, heating and cooling purchased and consumed by the company.
Scope 3 emissions
Emissions from sources that are not owned or controlled by the company.
Renewable energy
A type of energy derived from natural sources that are replenished faster than they can be consumed.
Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions correspond to the measurement of the total gases emitted into the earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities, such as transportation, agriculture, mining and industrial production, and energy generation and consumption, among others.
CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) technology is an alternative fuel technology used in trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles. CNG is natural gas or biogas compressed at high pressure and stored in tanks in the truck. CNG-powered trucks offer enough power, torque and range to handle demanding waste collection and delivery transportation. By using compressed biogas, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 70%.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas in its liquid phase at a temperature of -160ºC, so it is considered a cryogenic liquid.
Coal seams
Coal seams are layers of coal found in the earth’s crust that formed from the accumulation of plant debris in a sedimentation environment. Coalbed methane (CBM), also known as coalbed methane gas, is an unconventional gas source obtained by extracting the methane in coal seams.
Methane is a greenhouse gas (GHG) found in the Earth’s atmosphere, and is one of the gases that contribute to global warming. It is the simplest alkane hydrocarbon, and its chemical formula is CH42. It is a colorless, odorless gas that occurs as a gas at ordinary temperatures and pressures.
CO2 sequestration
CO2 sequestration is the long-term capture or removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to slow or decrease atmospheric CO2 pollution and mitigate global warming. Forests and general vegetation are carbon sinks, and have the capacity to absorb carbon in the atmosphere and incorporate it into their structure through photosynthesis. In this way, carbon that would otherwise be free in the atmosphere can be stored. In addition, organic carbon in plants is more stable than when found in its gaseous form.
Energy security
Energy security is the uninterrupted process of ensuring the amount of energy needed to sustain people’s lives and daily activities, while guaranteeing its affordability.
Colombian National Transmission System
The electric power transmission system composed of the set of lines and substations with their associated equipment, and transformers with their respective connection modules, which operate at voltages equal to or higher than 220 kV.
Mining pits
Mining pits are excavations in which only physical-mechanical, not chemical, processes are carried out during mining production. Both sterile and mineralized rocky material is moved, which is then transported and deposited in spaces designed for that purpose and processed through blasting, crushing and transportation to the metallurgical plants. There, physical processes, such as gravimetric and flotation, as well as chemical processes, such as leaching in its various forms, can take place.